This research introducing the depletion of piezometric head in the confined aquifer. The results were obtained through application of simulation program ( visual mudflow) in the three areas of Darb El Arbeain, southern western Desert, Egypt. Through different pumping scenarios for each case study, by running each case for 110 %, 180%, 280%, and 370% of initial calculated recharge and interpolation till the depletion of the piezometric head in each case study separately then correlate all cases of study and introducing depletion trend and guiding equations, the study revealed that the heterogeneity of the aquifer depends on both The time required for water level equilibrium under dynamic condition and The percentage of difference between max and min value of drawdown.
In this research, an attempt was carried out for land reclamation in the central part of Darb El Arbeain through evaluation of aquifer performance. The study area occupies the middle part of Darb EL-Arbeain and bounded by long. 30o 15/ and 30o 25/ E and lat. 23o 55/ and 24o 05/ N, it has an area of about 120 Km2. In this study four suggested scenarios of pumping rates have been explored to fit with the Egyptian ministry of irrigation using the three dimensional finite difference flow model (MODFLOW 2005) to simulate the flow system. These scenarios include running the model with abstraction from the aquifers equal 1.1, 1.8, 2.8, and 3.7 of calculated initial recharge. The results indicated that the head stabilising time is around 65 years at 1.1 pumping scenario and around 100 years at 3.7 of pumping rate of the calculated aquifer recharge, and the stabilizing drawdown time is around the half value of the aquifer head stabilizing time. The best recommended area for drilling more water wells is the north eastern parts and the southern western area. The study introduced new classification for confined aquifer classification where set that any confined aquifer exploiting 100 000 m3/day with less than 20m aquifer drawdown, aquifer response, is classified as high potential, meanwhile under same exploitation rate with 20-40 mt as aquifer response is considered as moderate potentiality, and the rest is low in potentiality.
Elemental concentrations of deposited dust are often used to assess the level of contamination, and for monitoring air pollution. So, this paper will give an overview of the chemical composition of dust storms in agriculture areas for arid land. Samples were collected from 18 positions in Qassim region. The concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Ba and Zn were determined in the deposited dust. The means of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Ba and Zn concentrations in dust were 9.72, 14.4, 109, 31.6, 14.o, 59.3, 437 and 75.5, respectively. The concentrations of the previously elements in dust samples were not in the toxicity values range. Also, data indicated that positions D1, D2, D3, D12 and D14 were higher in silicon and lower in aluminum, iron, Ca and Mg. Contrary, the other positions were lower silicon and higher in aluminum, iron, calcium and magnesium. However, all position almost contain similar amount of the alkali elements, potassium and sodium.
Abstract—Energy is the basic demand for the evolution of the advanced globe. The energy extracted from force is called potential energy which has visually no fuel expense. Thus, utilization of this energy can reduce the overall cost and can increase the output productivity. This project utilizes the force created from vehicle hump as an alternative and recyclable energy source. Electricity is generated by substituting the conventional speed breakers with a special one consisting of simple mechanisms. For this purpose, two generation methods are used: one is mechanical unit and another is piezoelectric unit. As the vehicles pass over the speed breaker, it sets about acting as they spin the rollers which are linked to a DC generator which rotates to generate electricity. A rack and pinion mechanism is provided which transfers the vertical movement to a DC generator for electricity generation. In addition, embedded piezo materials convert pressure directly into electricity. This method is an efficient resource to produce electricity as the numbers of electric vehicles on the road are increasing day by day. Likewise the cost of manufacture of the model is low. A bypass system consisting of these units can effectively recycle the energy exerted from the vehicles and in case of electric vehicles, feeding them back with wireless power transfer method. Additionally, it can be placed at the entrance of parking lots and any other situation where traffic density usually occurs.
Increase of hydrological extremes in recent decades has significant impact on natural and human systems. An unprecedented number of extreme events in different regions of the world were recorded in the first decade of the 21st century. In Lithuania, hydrological extremes highly depend on changes of meteorological parameters. Spring floods occur after formation of large snow cover, increase of temperature, and heavy rain. The main task of this research is to evaluate the impact of meteorological parameters on formation of spring floods in the rivers of Nemunas, Lielup? and Venta basins. Five Lithuanian rivers (Venta, Šešuvis, M?ša, Merkys and Žeimena) from these catchments were analysed in detail. They fall within the three hydrological regions of Lithuania. Long-term series of daily discharge, precipitation, thickness of snow cover were used from 12 meteorological and 5 hydrological gauging stations. The evaluation of relation between parameters was carried out for two periods (1961-1987 and 1988-2014).\nThe relation between the maximum spring flood discharge, maximum snow water equivalent and rainfall amount of ten days before the flood was obtained. Differences of these parameters according to the data of two periods (1961-1987 and 1988-2014) were estimated. Changes of flood character and snow conditions were tested with the best fit probability distributions for five selected rivers catchments, whereas this analysis showed that Generalised extreme value and Generalized Logistic probability distributions are best fitted. Regression models were created and relations between observed and predicted maximum spring discharge established. Hydrological modelling (HBV) for validation of regression models was used.
Abstract:\n Physico-chemical and heavy metals analyses of surface and borehole water samples in core crude oil producing communities of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the level surface and borehole water quality in the communities. The water samples were collected from ( Mkpanak, Ukpenekang and Inuayet Ikot communities in Ibeno Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The parameters determined included :colour, odour, turbidity, temperature, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, Dissolved oxygen(DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), Nitrate, Chloride, Calcium and heavy metals such as Iron, Zinc, ,Manganese, Chromium, Lead and Cadmium using conventional equipment and standard laboratory procedures. Results obtained in surface and borehole water collected from core crude producing communities showed traceable pollution that were above the World Health Organization (WHO) and National Agency for Food and Drug Administration Control (NAFDAC) limits for consumption. The results indicate toxic pollution in surface and borehole water collected from core oil producing communities of Ibeno Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Heavy metals concentrations recorded in surface and borehole water in core crude oil producing communities were above the WHO permissible level. This may be attributed to the activities or oil companies and indiscriminate dumping of wastes in their environment. The results showed that surface and borehole water in core crude oil producing communities (Mkpanak, Ukpenekang and Inuayet Ikot) in Ibeno Local Government Area were are polluted and require urgent attention and high levels of treatment before use.