The Northern Lights fascinate the human being since immemorial time, with their colors, myths, and legends. This phenomenon occurs in the ionosphere region, which is characterized by its plasmatic state, due to ionization of atmospheric gas atoms, particularly oxygen and nitrogen. In this paper, the path of O2+ and NO+ ions, at different altitudes and time, is described from stochastic approach by 3D random walk associated with ambipolar diffusion model. It is offered an algorithm based on unbiased Cartesian coordinates system, whose results for ions displacement are presented as 3D-cartograms. These figures illustrate the erratic mass diffusion of the ions on the Northern Lights.
The topic of the digitisation of the physical world has attracted considerable attention as a result of the rapid technological advancement we have seen, and continue to see, over the past few years. Technology and connectivity have enabled the interconnection of different technologies and software, in turn facilitating communication without the direct involvement of a human. This link of connectivity is based on a phenomenon known as the Internet of Things (IoT), a term that has been widespread since its introduction in 2009 and that has become an essential factor in real-life application. This paper focuses on the methods and tools available for applying the Internet of Things (IoT) in public sectors, with the overall aim to comprehend the ability of the IoT in terms of improving the various elements of the public sector, as well as the limitations of applying IoT. The literature review examines the different definitions of IoT concerning its application in the public sector, and also provides examples of such application in various global contexts.